Agri-food trade and non-tariff measures
Non-tariff measures (NTMs) – and more specifically sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures and technical barriers to trade (TBTs) – are increasingly used by policymakers. Two main reasons explain this growth. First, tariffs have decreased over the last decades; second, consumers increasingly ask for health and environment protection. If the effects of NTMs on agri-food trade are now well identified in the trade literature, some further developments are still needed.